Processing and printing of the film is performed by
laboratories, rather than members of the film crew. The
editor is responsible for selecting shots from the raw
footage and arranging them into the order specified in
the shooting script. Further reworking is often supervised
by the director. The editing process may be done by
physically cutting sections of the printed filmstrip, or
may now be done on a computer, using systems such as
Final Cut Pro or Avid (a high proportion of editing work
is now done digitally). Much of the technical and administrative work is performed by an assistant film editor.
The photographed images may still require additions
or modifications. Whereas special effects are created in
front of the camera, visual effects are added in postproduction under the direction of the visual effects supervisor. Alterations to the image may include erasing a
boom or a light that has accidentally got into the frame,
integrating digitally created characters with live action, or
changing the color of the sky so that shots filmed at
different times match up when edited together. Most
visual effects work is now done using computer technology. Some common crew members include modelers and
animators, who create the components that need to be
integrated with live footage, and digital compositors, who
combine various visual elements.
An animator creates a series of individual frames that
produce the illusion of movement when filmed sequentially. Animation may sometimes be incorporated into
live action films, but is often designed not to be noticed
as such. This kind of work normally falls to the visual
effects department. Some of the main roles include
the key animator, who creates strategic frames, such as
the poses a character takes at the start and end of a
movement, and ‘‘in-betweeners,’’ who create the intermediate frames, guided by the ‘‘dope sheet’’ on which the
appointed timings are detailed. In cel animation, an
opaquer colors in the outlines drawn onto each frame.
Now that much animation is done digitally, new roles
have emerged, such as rendering, which involves applying
texture, color, and detail to the three-dimensional ‘‘wireframe’’ contour of a character or object, and that of
software engineer, who designs and programs the computer systems.
The title designer is responsible for the placement of
cast and crew credits and may also design the title
sequence in its entirety. Much of the work is now done
digitally, as motion graphics have eroded the separation
between pictures and text. Sometimes an entire department is needed to create the title sequence, if live action
footage needs to be shot, animation must be created, or
complex visual effects are required. For this reason, the
work is often outsourced to dedicated title houses.